Problem: You have a longish essay or shortish memoir (say, 13 single-spaced pages) that you want to revise, but you don’t know where to start.
Solution: Try flipping the techniques you probably learned in college English.
Rhetorical analysis is a mouthful and uses criteria that date back to Aristotle. The underlying concepts, however, are familiar and accessible: ethical appeals (ethos), logical appeals (logos), emotional appeals (pathos), and right time/right place (kairos).
For my English 101 and 102 students I compare rhetorical analysis to dissecting a piece of writing. While biology students dissect creatures (worms, frogs, and so on) to find and identify their parts and systems, composition classes do something similar with published texts. They look at the choices an author made and how those choices influence readers. How did or didn’t the author’s writing strategies contribute to his or her purpose?
So, let’s flip the process to figure out what you’re doing (or missing). Instead of assessing someone else’s writing, look at your own nonfiction project. How do you handle the following?
Ethical appeals (ethos)—A writer’s character, knowledge, and authority
- Do you establish yourself as a trustworthy source? Establish your credibility or authority (such as relevant education, work, or life experience)?
- Reveal your biases and/or unbiased (journalistic) approach?
- Cite sources knowledgeably and reasonably? (The sources you cite may contribute to how readers perceive your credibility.)
- Acknowledge and address opposing viewpoints fairly?
Logical appeals (logos)—A text’s sound reasoning, sense of logic, and evidence
- Do you use sufficient, representative, and relative evidence to support your writing? (Look at the quality of your source material.)
- Avoid assumptions and fallacies, such as comparing apples and oranges, using a “straw man” that’s easily refuted, making false analogies, and so on?
- Employ reasonable arguments?
- Follow a logical structure?
Emotional appeals (pathos)—A text’s connection to beliefs and values
- Do you use emotional content legitimately and fairly?
- Realize the emotions your words might evoke in readers? (This includes how covertly or overtly you communicate your own beliefs.)
- Avoid oversimplifying or overdramatizing?
- Include emotional content ethically, instead of as a tactic to shift attention?
Right time/right place (kairos)—A text’s timeliness or opportunity
- Do you strike the right tone to address your intended audience? (For example, imagine writing to a potential employer versus your best friend.)
- Use timely and relevant examples?
- Adjust your text to meet the needs of your audience?
- Consider: Why this text? Why now?
For my work-in-progress, kairos or right time/right place has been a crucial consideration. I’m writing about events that occurred alongside my first attempts at a reporting and editing career after college. Once I connected the events to my current work teaching students in a similar (if earlier) stage of life, I found what made the text timely. It stopped being simply a Woman vs. Nature story.
This, in turn, led me to consider pathos or the emotional content of the piece. My distance from the events, as well as my proximity to current college students dealing with similar issues, helped me answer what author Ron Carlson used to ask in workshops: What’s swimming under the boat? (I apologize if I’ve misquoted him, but he makes a similar point about things “under the boat” in a Newwest interview. He’s referring to fiction, but I believe his idea works for narrative nonfiction also.)
In considering other rhetorical elements I winnowed unwieldy drafts so that every detail had a purpose. I forecast how my writing choices could influence readers, and I found a conclusion with greater resonance.
This analytical process gave me a sense of intention in my revisions. I hope it does the same for you.
References: The main sources used in compiling this blog were:
- Rules for Writers, 8th ed., by Diana Hacker and Nancy Sommers
- Writing Commons, a peer-reviewed Open Text